Children's Advocacy Centers of North Dakota
200 E. Main Street #301 * Bismarck, ND 58501
701-323-5626 *
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Traumatic Brain Injury

General Information 

Traumatic brain injury refers to an acquired injury to the brain results from external physical force causing functional disability and/or psychosocial impairment, which adversely affect educational performance. The injury can be an open or closed head injury sustained after birth and does not include injuries that are congenital, related to birth, or degenerative in nature. Traumatic brain injuries often cause difficulties in more than one domain. The IDEA definition includes the following types of impairments: cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem‐solving; sensory, perceptual and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech.

Resources for Prefessionals 

Possible Effects of TBI 

Physical impairments  

Cognitive impairments 

Emotional impairments 

  •  speech

  • short term memory deficits
  • mood swings
  •  vision

  • impaired concentration
  • denial
  •  hearing

  • slowness of thinking
  • self-centeredness
  •  headaches

  • limited attention span 
  • anxiety
  •  motor coordination

  • impairments of perception
  • depression
  •  spasticity of muscles

  • communication skills
  • lowered self-esteem
  •  paresis or paralysis

  • planning
  • sexual dysfunction
  •  seizure disorders

  • writing
  • restlessness
  •  balance

  • reading
  • lack of motivation
  •  fatigue

  • judgment 
  • difficulty controlling
  •  emotions

Brain Injury Association of America (n.d.).Living with a brain injury: Brain Injury in Children. children.htm